Dialing code +91
ISO 2 code IN
ISO 3 code IND
Capital New Delhi
Main Language English
Currency Rupee (INR)
GDP $3.3 trillion 4th
Population 1,173,108,018 2nd


Continent Asia
Location Southern Asia bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal between Burma and Pakistan
Land 3,287,590 km2 7th
Terrain Upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south flat to rolling plain along the Ganges deserts in west Himalayas in north
Climate Varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Natural Hazards Upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south flat to rolling plain along the Ganges deserts in west Himalayas in north
Note: Dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga third tallest mountain in the world lies on the border with Nepal

Neighbouring Countries

Bangladesh Bhutan China Myanmar Nepal Pakistan


Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science art and culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkic in the 12th were followed by those of European traders beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons testing in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output India faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation environmental degradation extensive poverty and widespread corruption.
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Life Expectancy 69.89 years 133rd
Median Age 25.3 years 117th
Birth Rate 21.76 births/1,000 population 80th
Death Rate 6.23 births/1,000 population 140th
Sex Ratio 0.9 male(s)/female 38th
Literacy 61.0% 174th

1.2 billion


Roadways 3.3 million km 2nd
Railways 63327 km 4th
Airports 345 22nd
Waterways 14500 km 9th
Heliports 30 5th
Airports paved 16 4th


Currency Rupee (INR)
GDP $3.3 trillion 4th
GDP per capita (PPP) $2800 150th