Dialing code +977
ISO 2 code NP
ISO 3 code NPL
Capital Kathmandu
Main Language Nepali
Currency Rupee (NPR)
GDP $31.1 billion 101st
Population 28,951,852 42nd


Continent Asia
Location Southern Asia between China and India
Land 140,800 km2 96th
Terrain Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south central hill region rugged Himalayas in north
Climate Varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
Natural Hazards Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south central hill region rugged Himalayas in north
Note: Landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders with China and India respectively

Neighbouring Countries

China India


In 1951 the Nepalese monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. An insurgency led by Maoist extremists broke out in 1996. The ensuing ten-year civil war between insurgents and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and assumption of absolute power by the king. Several weeks of mass protests in April 2006 were followed by several months of peace negotiations between the Maoists and government officials and culminated in a November 2006 peace accord and the promulgation of an interim constitution. Following a nation-wide election in April 2008 the newly formed Constituent Assembly declared Nepal a federal democratic republic and abolished the monarchy at its first meeting the following month. The Constituent Assembly elected the country's first president in July. The Maoists who received a plurality of votes in the Constituent Assembly election formed a coalition government in August 2008.
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Life Expectancy 65.46 years 151st
Median Age 20.8 years 154th
Birth Rate 23.18 births/1,000 population 72nd
Death Rate 6.97 births/1,000 population 122nd
Sex Ratio 0.89 male(s)/female 43rd
Literacy 48.6% 189th

29.0 million


Roadways 17282 km 119th
Railways 59 km 126th
Airports 47 92nd
Waterways None km
Heliports None
Airports paved 1 101st


Currency Rupee (NPR)
GDP $31.1 billion 101st
GDP per capita (PPP) $1100 187th