Dialing code +92
ISO 2 code PK
ISO 3 code PAK
Capital Islamabad
Main Language Urdu
Currency Rupee (PKR)
GDP $452.7 billion 25th
Population 184,404,791 6th


Continent Asia
Location Southern Asia bordering the Arabian Sea between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north
Land 803,940 km2 35th
Terrain Flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Climate Mostly hot dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north
Natural Hazards Flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west
Note: Controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

Neighbouring Countries

Afghanistan China India Iran


The Indus Valley civilization one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5 000 years spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. During the second millennium B.C. remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples. The area underwent successive invasions in subsequent centuries from the Persians Greeks Scythians Arabs (who brought Islam) Afghans and Turks. The Mughal Empire flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries; the British came to dominate the region in the 18th century. The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved and India and Pakistan fought two wars - in 1947-48 and 1965 - over the disputed Kashmir territory. A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. In response to Indian nuclear weapons testing Pakistan conducted its own tests in 1998. The dispute over the state of Kashmir is ongoing but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Mounting public dissatisfaction with President MUSHARRAF coupled with the assassination of the prominent and popular political leader Benazir BHUTTO in late 2007 and MUSHARRAF's resignation in August 2008 led to the September presidential election of Asif ZARDARI BHUTTO's widower. Pakistani government and military leaders are struggling to control Islamist militants many of whom are located in the tribal areas adjacent to the border with Afghanistan. The November 2008 Mumbai attacks again inflamed Indo-Pakistan relations. The Pakistani Government is also faced with a deteriorating economy as foreign exchange reserves decline the currency depreciates and the current account deficit widens.
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Life Expectancy 64.49 years 153rd
Median Age 20.8 years 153rd
Birth Rate 27.62 births/1,000 population 52nd
Death Rate 7.68 births/1,000 population 109th
Sex Ratio 0.88 male(s)/female 47th
Literacy 49.9% 187th

184.4 million


Roadways 259197 km 19th
Railways 7791 km 27th
Airports 143 39th
Waterways None km
Heliports 18 9th
Airports paved 11 11th


Currency Rupee (PKR)
GDP $452.7 billion 25th
GDP per capita (PPP) $2600 152nd