Dialing code +975
ISO 2 code BT
ISO 3 code BTN
Capital Thimphu
Main Language None
Currency Ngultrum (BTN)
GDP $3.8 billion 161st
Population 699,847 166th


Continent Asia
Location Southern Asia between China and India
Land 47,000 km2 133rd
Terrain Mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Climate Varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Natural Hazards Mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Note: Landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

Neighbouring Countries

China India


In 1865 Britain and Bhutan signed the Treaty of Sinchulu under which Bhutan would receive an annual subsidy in exchange for ceding some border land to British India. Under British influence a monarchy was set up in 1907; three years later a treaty was signed whereby the British agreed not to interfere in Bhutanese internal affairs and Bhutan allowed Britain to direct its foreign affairs. This role was assumed by independent India after 1947. Two years later a formal Indo-Bhutanese accord returned the areas of Bhutan annexed by the British formalized the annual subsidies the country received and defined India's responsibilities in defense and foreign relations. A refugee issue of over 100 000 Bhutanese in Nepal remains unresolved; 90% of the refugees are housed in seven United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) camps. In March 2005 King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK unveiled the government's draft constitution - which would introduce major democratic reforms - and pledged to hold a national referendum for its approval. In December 2006 the King abdicated the throne to his son Jigme Khesar Namgyel WANGCHUCK in order to give him experience as head of state before the democratic transition. In early 2007 India and Bhutan renegotiated their treaty to allow Bhutan greater autonomy in conducting its foreign policy although Thimphu continues to coordinate policy decisions in this area with New Delhi. In July 2007 seven ministers of Bhutan's ten-member cabinet resigned to join the political process and the cabinet acted as a caretaker regime until democratic elections for seats to the country's first parliament were completed in March 2008. The king ratified the country's first constitution in July 2008.
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Life Expectancy 66.13 years 147th
Median Age 23.9 years 130th
Birth Rate 20.07 births/1,000 population 90th
Death Rate 7.39 births/1,000 population 114th
Sex Ratio 1.04 male(s)/female 4th
Literacy 47.0% 193rd



Roadways 8050 km 139th
Railways None km
Airports 2 189th
Waterways None km
Heliports None
Airports paved 1 99th


Currency Ngultrum (BTN)
GDP $3.8 billion 161st
GDP per capita (PPP) $5600 121st