Dialing code +7
ISO 2 code RU
ISO 3 code RUS
Capital Moscow
Main Language Russian
Currency Ruble (RUB)
GDP $2.2 trillion 7th
Population 140,702,000 9th


Continent Europe
Location Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe) bordering the Arctic Ocean between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean
Land 17,100,000 km2 1st
Terrain Broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Climate Ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast
Natural Hazards Broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions
Note: Largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak

Neighbouring Countries

Azerbaijan Belarus China Estonia Finland Georgia Kazakhstan Latvia Lithuania Mongolia North Korea Norway Poland Ukraine


Founded in the 12th century the Principality of Muscovy was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under PETER I (ruled 1682-1725) hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905 which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir LENIN seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif STALIN (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail GORBACHEV (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state whose legitimacy is buttressed in part by carefully managed national elections former President PUTIN's genuine popularity and the prudent management of Russia's windfall energy wealth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus.
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Life Expectancy 66.03 years 148th
Median Age 38.4 years 40th
Birth Rate 11.1 births/1,000 population 163rd
Death Rate 16.06 births/1,000 population 16th
Sex Ratio 0.44 male(s)/female 206th
Literacy 99.4% 20th

140.7 million


Roadways 933000 km 7th
Railways 87157 km 2nd
Airports 1232 5th
Waterways 102000 km 2nd
Heliports 47 3rd
Airports paved 52 2nd


Currency Ruble (RUB)
GDP $2.2 trillion 7th
GDP per capita (PPP) $15800 66th