Dialing code +358
ISO 2 code FI
ISO 3 code FIN
Capital Helsinki
Main Language Finnish
Currency Euro (EUR)
GDP $195.2 billion 52nd
Population 5,244,000 114th


Continent Europe
Location Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland between Sweden and Russia
Land 337,030 km2 65th
Terrain Mostly low flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Climate Cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current Baltic Sea and more than 60 000 lakes
Natural Hazards Mostly low flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Note: Long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Neighbouring Countries

Norway Russia Sweden


Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995 Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
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Life Expectancy 78.97 years 32nd
Median Age 42.1 years 7th
Birth Rate 10.38 births/1,000 population 172nd
Death Rate 10.07 births/1,000 population 59th
Sex Ratio 0.68 male(s)/female 167th
Literacy 100.0% 4th

5.2 million


Roadways 78141 km 61st
Railways 5794 km 30th
Airports 148 36th
Waterways 7842 km 17th
Heliports None
Airports paved 3 48th


Currency Euro (EUR)
GDP $195.2 billion 52nd
GDP per capita (PPP) $37200 27th