Dialing code +976
ISO 2 code MN
ISO 3 code MNG
Capital Ulan Bator
Main Language Mongolian
Currency Tugrik (MNT)
GDP $9.6 billion 147th
Population 3,086,918 135th


Continent Asia
Location Northern Asia between China and Russia
Land 1,565,000 km2 19th
Terrain Vast semidesert and desert plains grassy steppe mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Climate Desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Natural Hazards Vast semidesert and desert plains grassy steppe mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Note: Landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Neighbouring Countries

China Russia


The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they established a huge Eurasian empire through conquest. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing and a Communist regime was installed in 1924. The modern country of Mongolia however represents only part of the Mongols' historical homeland; more Mongols live in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China than in Mongolia. Following a peaceful democratic revolution the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992 but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. The MPRP won an overwhelming majority in the 2000 parliamentary election but the party lost seats in the 2004 election and shared power with democratic coalition parties from 2004-08. The MPRP regained a solid majority in the 2008 parliamentary elections but nevertheless formed a coalition government with the Democratic Party. The prime minister and most cabinet members are MPRP members.
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Life Expectancy 67.65 years 141st
Median Age 25.3 years 116th
Birth Rate 21.05 births/1,000 population 84th
Death Rate 6.12 births/1,000 population 145th
Sex Ratio 0.77 male(s)/female 106th
Literacy 97.8% 64th

3.1 million


Roadways 49249 km 79th
Railways 1810 km 75th
Airports 44 98th
Waterways 580 km 80th
Heliports 1 78th
Airports paved 1 154th


Currency Tugrik (MNT)
GDP $9.6 billion 147th
GDP per capita (PPP) $3200 147th