Dialing code +57
ISO 2 code CO
ISO 3 code COL
Capital Bogota
Main Language Spanish
Currency Peso (COP)
GDP $399.4 billion 27th
Population 44,205,293 29th


Continent South America
Location Northern South America bordering the Caribbean Sea between Panama and Venezuela and bordering the North Pacific Ocean between Ecuador and Panama
Land 1,138,910 km2 26th
Terrain Flat coastal lowlands central highlands high Andes Mountains eastern lowland plains
Climate Tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Natural Hazards Flat coastal lowlands central highlands high Andes Mountains eastern lowland plains
Note: Only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

Neighbouring Countries

Brazil Ecuador Panama Peru Venezuela


Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A four-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government and violence has been decreasing since about 2002 but insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large areas of the countryside are under guerrilla influence or are contested by security forces. More than 31 000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) as a formal organization had ceased to function. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization emerging criminal groups arose whose members include some former paramilitaries. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. However neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
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Life Expectancy 72.81 years 102nd
Median Age 27.1 years 106th
Birth Rate 19.57 births/1,000 population 97th
Death Rate 5.54 births/1,000 population 161st
Sex Ratio 0.75 male(s)/female 126th
Literacy 90.4% 113th

44.2 million


Roadways 164257 km 30th
Railways 3802 km 44th
Airports 991 8th
Waterways 18000 km 6th
Heliports 2 53rd
Airports paved 2 80th


Currency Peso (COP)
GDP $399.4 billion 27th
GDP per capita (PPP) $8900 99th