Dialing code +593
ISO 2 code EC
ISO 3 code ECU
Capital Quito
Main Language Spanish
Currency Dollar (USD)
GDP $107.1 billion 64th
Population 14,790,608 65th


Continent South America
Location Western South America bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator between Colombia and Peru
Land 283,560 km2 73rd
Terrain Coastal plain (costa) inter-Andean central highlands (sierra) and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Climate Tropical along coast becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands
Natural Hazards Coastal plain (costa) inter-Andean central highlands (sierra) and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)
Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

Neighbouring Countries

Colombia Peru


What is now Ecuador formed part of the northern Inca Empire until the Spanish conquest in 1533. Quito became a seat of Spanish colonial government in 1563 and part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. The territories of the Viceroyalty - New Granada (Colombia) Venezuela and Quito - gained their independence between 1819 and 1822 and formed a federation known as Gran Colombia. When Quito withdrew in 1830 the traditional name was changed in favor of the "Republic of the Equator." Between 1904 and 1942 Ecuador lost territories in a series of conflicts with its neighbors. A border war with Peru that flared in 1995 was resolved in 1999. Although Ecuador marked 25 years of civilian governance in 2004 the period has been marred by political instability. Protests in Quito have contributed to the mid-term ouster of Ecuador's last three democratically elected Presidents. In September 2008 voters approved a new constitution; Ecuador's twentieth since gaining independence. General elections under the new constitutional framework are expected in April 2009.
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Life Expectancy 75.3 years 72nd
Median Age 25.0 years 119th
Birth Rate 20.77 births/1,000 population 87th
Death Rate 4.99 births/1,000 population 177th
Sex Ratio 0.93 male(s)/female 27th
Literacy 91.0% 108th

14.8 million


Roadways 43670 km 83rd
Railways 965 km 89th
Airports 418 18th
Waterways 1500 km 52nd
Heliports 1 67th
Airports paved 3 44th


Currency Dollar (USD)
GDP $107.1 billion 64th
GDP per capita (PPP) $7500 110th