Dialing code +58
ISO 2 code VE
ISO 3 code VEN
Capital Caracas
Main Language Venezuelan Spanish
Currency Bolivar (VEF)
GDP $357.9 billion 30th
Population 27,223,228 45th


Continent South America
Location Northern South America bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean between Colombia and Guyana
Land 912,050 km2 33rd
Terrain Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast
Climate Tropical; hot humid; more moderate in highlands
Natural Hazards Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast
Note: On major sea and air routes linking North and South America; Angel Falls in the Guiana Highlands is the world's highest waterfall

Neighbouring Countries

Brazil Colombia Guyana


Venezuela was one of three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and New Granada which became Colombia). For most of the first half of the 20th century Venezuela was ruled by generally benevolent military strongmen who promoted the oil industry and allowed for some social reforms. Democratically elected governments have held sway since 1959. Hugo CHAVEZ president since 1999 seeks to implement his "21st Century Socialism " which purports to alleviate social ills while at the same time attacking globalization and undermining regional stability. Current concerns include: a weakening of democratic institutions political polarization a politicized military drug-related violence along the Colombian border increasing internal drug consumption overdependence on the petroleum industry with its price fluctuations and irresponsible mining operations that are endangering the rain forest and indigenous peoples.
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Life Expectancy 73.61 years 92nd
Median Age 25.5 years 115th
Birth Rate 20.61 births/1,000 population 88th
Death Rate 5.12 births/1,000 population 170th
Sex Ratio 0.8 male(s)/female 85th
Literacy 93.0% 96th

27.2 million


Roadways 96155 km 46th
Railways 806 km 100th
Airports 402 19th
Waterways 7100 km 20th
Heliports 2 52nd
Airports paved 5 25th


Currency Bolivar (VEF)
GDP $357.9 billion 30th
GDP per capita (PPP) $13500 74th