Dialing code +51
ISO 2 code PE
ISO 3 code PER
Capital Lima
Main Language Spanish
Currency Sol (PEN)
GDP $238.9 billion 45th
Population 29,907,003 39th


Continent South America
Location Western South America bordering the South Pacific Ocean between Chile and Ecuador
Land 1,285,220 km2 20th
Terrain Western coastal plain (costa) high and rugged Andes in center (sierra) eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Climate Varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Natural Hazards Western coastal plain (costa) high and rugged Andes in center (sierra) eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Note: Shares control of Lago Titicaca world's highest navigable lake with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi a 5 316 m peak is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

Neighbouring Countries

Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador


Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821 and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980 but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001 which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA Perez who after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990 has overseen a robust macroeconomic performance.
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Life Expectancy 70.74 years 126th
Median Age 26.1 years 112th
Birth Rate 19.38 births/1,000 population 99th
Death Rate 6.14 births/1,000 population 143rd
Sex Ratio 0.89 male(s)/female 40th
Literacy 92.9% 97th

29.9 million


Roadways 78829 km 60th
Railways 1989 km 72nd
Airports 202 30th
Waterways 8808 km 14th
Heliports 1 84th
Airports paved 4 33rd


Currency Sol (PEN)
GDP $238.9 billion 45th
GDP per capita (PPP) $8400 105th