Dialing code +249
ISO 2 code SD
ISO 3 code SDN
Capital Khartoum
Main Language Arabic
Currency Pound (SDG)
GDP $87.3 billion 69th
Population 35,000,000 34th


Continent Africa
Location Northern Africa bordering the Red Sea between Egypt and Eritrea
Land 1,861,484 km2 16th
Terrain Generally flat featureless plain; mountains in far south northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Climate Tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Natural Hazards Generally flat featureless plain; mountains in far south northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Note: Largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries

Neighbouring Countries

Central African Republic Chad Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Libya South Sudan


Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic political and social domination of largely non-Muslim non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than four million people displaced and according to rebel estimates more than two million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) signed in January 2005 granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years. After which a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003 has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200 000 to 400 000 deaths. The UN took command of the Darfur peacekeeping operation from the African Union on 31 December 2007. As of early 2009 peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation which has become increasingly regional in scope and has brought instability to eastern Chad and Sudanese incursions into the Central African Republic. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict poor transport infrastructure and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
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Life Expectancy 51.42 years 186th
Median Age 19.1 years 168th
Birth Rate 33.74 births/1,000 population 40th
Death Rate 12.94 births/1,000 population 31st
Sex Ratio 1.01 male(s)/female 11th
Literacy 61.1% 173rd

35.0 million


Roadways 11900 km 132nd
Railways 5978 km 29th
Airports 109 53rd
Waterways 4068 km 24th
Heliports 4 34th
Airports paved 1 100th


Currency Pound (SDG)
GDP $87.3 billion 69th
GDP per capita (PPP) $2200 163rd