Dialing code +235
ISO 2 code TD
ISO 3 code TCD
Capital N'Djamena
Main Language French
Currency Franc (XAF)
GDP $16.3 billion 129th
Population 10,543,464 78th


Continent Africa
Location Central Africa south of Libya
Land 1,284,000 km2 21st
Terrain Broad arid plains in center desert in north mountains in northwest lowlands in south
Climate Tropical in south desert in north
Natural Hazards Broad arid plains in center desert in north mountains in northwest lowlands in south
Note: Landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

Neighbouring Countries

Cameroon Central African Republic Libya Niger Nigeria Sudan


Chad part of France's African holdings until 1960 endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998 a rebellion broke out in northern Chad which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005 new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005 President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007 and the capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008.
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Life Expectancy 47.7 years 193rd
Median Age 16.5 years 201st
Birth Rate 40.86 births/1,000 population 16th
Death Rate 16.09 births/1,000 population 15th
Sex Ratio 0.73 male(s)/female 134th
Literacy 25.7% 205th

10.5 million


Roadways 33400 km 94th
Railways None km
Airports 53 88th
Waterways None km
Heliports None
Airports paved 1 172nd


Currency Franc (XAF)
GDP $16.3 billion 129th
GDP per capita (PPP) $1600 174th