Dialing code +39
ISO 2 code IT
ISO 3 code ITA
Capital Rome
Main Language Italian
Currency Euro (EUR)
GDP $1.8 trillion 9th
Population 60,340,328 23rd


Continent Europe
Location Southern Europe a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea northeast of Tunisia
Land 301,230 km2 71st
Terrain Mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains coastal lowlands
Climate Predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot dry in south
Natural Hazards Mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains coastal lowlands
Note: Strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

Neighbouring Countries

Austria France San Marino Slovenia Switzerland Vatican


Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula along with Sardinia and Sicily were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy was a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include illegal immigration organized crime corruption high unemployment sluggish economic growth and the low incomes and technical standards of southern Italy compared with the prosperous north.
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Life Expectancy 80.2 years 17th
Median Age 43.3 years 4th
Birth Rate 8.18 births/1,000 population 204th
Death Rate 10.72 births/1,000 population 51st
Sex Ratio 0.72 male(s)/female 135th
Literacy 98.4% 51st

60.3 million


Roadways 487700 km 11th
Railways 19729 km 14th
Airports 132 42nd
Waterways 2400 km 36th
Heliports 5 31st
Airports paved 8 13th


Currency Euro (EUR)
GDP $1.8 trillion 9th
GDP per capita (PPP) $31000 36th