Dialing code +84
ISO 2 code VN
ISO 3 code VNM
Capital Hanoi
Main Language Vietnamese
Currency Dong (VND)
GDP $241.8 billion 43rd
Population 89,571,130 13th


Continent Asia
Location Southeastern Asia bordering the Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin and South China Sea alongside China Laos and Cambodia
Land 329,560 km2 67th
Terrain Low flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly mountainous in far north and northwest
Climate Tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot rainy season (May to September) and warm dry season (October to March)
Natural Hazards Low flat delta in south and north; central highlands; hilly mountainous in far north and northwest
Note: Extending 1 650 km north to south the country is only 50 km across at its narrowest point

Neighbouring Countries

Cambodia China Laos


The conquest of Vietnam by France began in 1858 and was completed by 1884. It became part of French Indochina in 1887. Vietnam declared independence after World War II but France continued to rule until its 1954 defeat by Communist forces under Ho Chi MINH. Under the Geneva Accords of 1954 Vietnam was divided into the Communist North and anti-Communist South. US economic and military aid to South Vietnam grew through the 1960s in an attempt to bolster the government but US armed forces were withdrawn following a cease-fire agreement in 1973. Two years later North Vietnamese forces overran the South reuniting the country under Communist rule. Despite the return of peace for over a decade the country experienced little economic growth because of conservative leadership policies the persecution and mass exodus of individuals - many of them successful South Vietnamese merchants - and growing international isolation. However since the enactment of Vietnam's "doi moi" (renovation) policy in 1986 Vietnamese authorities have committed to increased economic liberalization and enacted structural reforms needed to modernize the economy and to produce more competitive export-driven industries. The country continues to experience small-scale protests from various groups the vast majority connected to land-use issues and the lack of equitable mechanisms for resolving disputes. Various ethnic minorities such as the Montagnards of the Central Highlands and the Khmer Krom in the southern delta region have also held protests. In January 2008 Vietnam assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2008-09 term.
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Life Expectancy 71.58 years 115th
Median Age 27.4 years 105th
Birth Rate 16.31 births/1,000 population 121st
Death Rate 6.17 births/1,000 population 142nd
Sex Ratio 0.63 male(s)/female 189th
Literacy 90.3% 115th

89.6 million


Roadways 222179 km 22nd
Railways 2347 km 65th
Airports 44 96th
Waterways 17702 km 7th
Heliports 1 69th
Airports paved 5 24th


Currency Dong (VND)
GDP $241.8 billion 43rd
GDP per capita (PPP) $2800 151st