Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course of World War I; in 1920 it was declared a League of Nations mandate under UK administration. In stages over the next dozen years Iraq attained its independence as a kingdom in 1932. A "republic" was proclaimed in 1958 but in actuality a series of strongmen ruled the country until 2003. The last was SADDAM Husayn. Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war (1980-88). In August 1990 Iraq seized Kuwait but was expelled by US-led UN coalition forces during the Gulf War of January-February 1991. Following Kuwait's liberation the UN Security Council (UNSC) required Iraq to scrap all weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles and to allow UN verification inspections. Continued Iraqi noncompliance with UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in March 2003 and the ouster of the SADDAM Husayn regime. US forces remained in Iraq under a UNSC mandate until 31 December 2008 and under a bilateral Security Agreement thereafter helping to provide security and to support the freely elected government. In October 2005 Iraqis approved a constitution in a national referendum and pursuant to this document elected a 275-member Council of Representatives (CoR) in December 2005. After the election Ibrahim al-JAAFARI was selected as prime minister; he was replaced by Nuri al-MALIKI in May 2006. The CoR approved most cabinet ministers in May 2006 marking the transition to Iraq's first constitutional government in nearly a half century. On 31 January 2009 Iraq held elections for provincial councils in all provinces except for the three provinces comprising the Kurdistan Regional Government and at-Ta'mim (Kirkuk) province.
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