Dialing code +31
ISO 2 code NL
ISO 3 code NLD
Capital Amsterdam
Main Language Dutch
Currency Euro (EUR)
GDP $670.2 billion 19th
Population 16,645,000 60th


Continent Europe
Location Western Europe bordering the North Sea between Belgium and Germany
Land 41,526 km2 136th
Terrain Mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
Climate Temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters
Natural Hazards Mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some hills in southeast
Note: Located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine Maas or Meuse and Schelde)

Neighbouring Countries

Belgium Germany


The Dutch United Provinces declared their independence from Spain in 1579; during the 17th century they became a leading seafaring and commercial power with settlements and colonies around the world. After a 20-year French occupation a Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed in 1815. In 1830 Belgium seceded and formed a separate kingdom. The Netherlands remained neutral in World War I but suffered invasion and occupation by Germany in World War II. A modern industrialized nation the Netherlands is also a large exporter of agricultural products. The country was a founding member of NATO and the EEC (now the EU) and participated in the introduction of the euro in 1999.
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Life Expectancy 79.4 years 26th
Median Age 40.4 years 23rd
Birth Rate 10.4 births/1,000 population 171st
Death Rate 8.74 births/1,000 population 82nd
Sex Ratio 0.76 male(s)/female 116th
Literacy 99.0% 34th

16.6 million


Roadways 135470 km 34th
Railways 2811 km 56th
Airports 27 122nd
Waterways 6215 km 21st
Heliports 1 82nd
Airports paved 1 135th


Currency Euro (EUR)
GDP $670.2 billion 19th
GDP per capita (PPP) $40300 16th