Dialing code +359
ISO 2 code BG
ISO 3 code BGR
Capital Sofia
Main Language Bulgarian
Currency Lev (BGN)
GDP $93.8 billion 66th
Population 7,148,785 99th


Continent Europe
Location Southeastern Europe bordering the Black Sea between Romania and Turkey
Land 110,910 km2 105th
Terrain Mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Climate Temperate; cold damp winters; hot dry summers
Natural Hazards Mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast
Note: Strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

Neighbouring Countries

Greece Macedonia Romania Serbia Turkey


The Bulgars a Central Asian Turkic tribe merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990 when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation unemployment corruption and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
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Life Expectancy 73.09 years 99th
Median Age 41.4 years 13th
Birth Rate 9.51 births/1,000 population 189th
Death Rate 14.31 births/1,000 population 22nd
Sex Ratio 0.68 male(s)/female 162nd
Literacy 98.2% 52nd

7.1 million


Roadways 40231 km 88th
Railways 4294 km 37th
Airports 204 29th
Waterways 470 km 81st
Heliports 4 36th
Airports paved 2 81st


Currency Lev (BGN)
GDP $93.8 billion 66th
GDP per capita (PPP) $12900 77th