Dialing code +387
ISO 2 code BA
ISO 3 code BIH
Capital Sarajevo
Main Language Bosnian
Currency Marka (BAM)
GDP $29.9 billion 103rd
Population 4,590,000 122nd


Continent Europe
Location Southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia
Land 51,129 km2 129th
Terrain Mountains and valleys
Climate Hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short cool summers and long severe winters; mild rainy winters along coast
Natural Hazards Mountains and valleys
Note: Within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east

Neighbouring Countries

Croatia Montenegro Serbia


Bosnia and Herzegovina's declaration of sovereignty in October 1991 was followed by a declaration of independence from the former Yugoslavia on 3 March 1992 after a referendum boycotted by ethnic Serbs. The Bosnian Serbs - supported by neighboring Serbia and Montenegro - responded with armed resistance aimed at partitioning the republic along ethnic lines and joining Serb-held areas to form a "Greater Serbia." In March 1994 Bosniaks and Croats reduced the number of warring factions from three to two by signing an agreement creating a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On 21 November 1995 in Dayton Ohio the warring parties initialed a peace agreement that brought to a halt three years of interethnic civil strife (the final agreement was signed in Paris on 14 December 1995). The Dayton Peace Accords retained Bosnia and Herzegovina's international boundaries and created a joint multi-ethnic and democratic government charged with conducting foreign diplomatic and fiscal policy. Also recognized was a second tier of government comprised of two entities roughly equal in size: the Bosniak/Croat Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (RS). The Federation and RS governments were charged with overseeing most government functions. The Office of the High Representative (OHR) was established to oversee the implementation of the civilian aspects of the agreement. In 1995-96 a NATO-led international peacekeeping force (IFOR) of 60 000 troops served in Bosnia to implement and monitor the military aspects of the agreement. IFOR was succeeded by a smaller NATO-led Stabilization Force (SFOR) whose mission was to deter renewed hostilities. European Union peacekeeping troops (EUFOR) replaced SFOR in December 2004; their mission is to maintain peace and stability throughout the country. EUFOR's mission changed from peacekeeping to civil policing in October 2007 with its presence reduced from nearly 7 000 to less than 2 500 troops.
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Life Expectancy 78.5 years 36th
Median Age 39.8 years 28th
Birth Rate 8.85 births/1,000 population 199th
Death Rate 8.63 births/1,000 population 84th
Sex Ratio 0.69 male(s)/female 159th
Literacy 96.7% 74th

4.6 million


Roadways 21846 km 106th
Railways 1000 km 87th
Airports 25 128th
Waterways None km
Heliports 5 28th
Airports paved 1 130th


Currency Marka (BAM)
GDP $29.9 billion 103rd
GDP per capita (PPP) $6500 115th