Dialing code +81
ISO 2 code JP
ISO 3 code JPN
Capital Tokyo
Main Language Japanese
Currency Yen (JPY)
GDP $4.3 trillion 3rd
Population 127,288,000 10th


Continent Asia
Location Eastern Asia island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan east of the Korean Peninsula
Land 377,835 km2 62nd
Terrain Mostly rugged and mountainous
Climate Varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north
Natural Hazards Mostly rugged and mountainous
Note: Strategic location in northeast Asia

Neighbouring Countries


In 1603 a Tokugawa shogunate (military dictatorship) ushered in a long period of isolation from foreign influence in order to secure its power. For more than two centuries this policy enabled Japan to enjoy stability and a flowering of its indigenous culture. Following the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854 Japan opened its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries Japan became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia. It occupied Korea Formosa (Taiwan) and southern Sakhalin Island. In 1931-32 Japan occupied Manchuria and in 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. Japan attacked US forces in 1941 - triggering America's entry into World War II - and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. After its defeat in World War II Japan recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity elected politicians - with heavy input from bureaucrats and business executives - wield actual decisionmaking power. The economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth but Japan still remains a major economic power both in Asia and globally. In January 2009 Japan assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2009-10 term.
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Life Expectancy 82.12 years 3rd
Median Age 44.2 years 2nd
Birth Rate 7.64 births/1,000 population 205th
Death Rate 9.54 births/1,000 population 68th
Sex Ratio 0.74 male(s)/female 128th
Literacy 99.0% 43rd

127.3 million


Roadways 1.2 million km 5th
Railways 23506 km 10th
Airports 175 33rd
Waterways 1770 km 45th
Heliports 14 13th
Airports paved 7 14th


Currency Yen (JPY)
GDP $4.3 trillion 3rd
GDP per capita (PPP) $34200 32nd