Dialing code +20
ISO 2 code EG
ISO 3 code EGY
Capital Cairo
Main Language Arabic
Currency Pound (EGP)
GDP $442.6 billion 26th
Population 80,471,869 16th


Continent Africa
Location Northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Libya and the Gaza Strip and the Red Sea north of Sudan and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Land 1,001,450 km2 30th
Terrain Vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Climate Desert; hot dry summers with moderate winters
Natural Hazards Vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Note: Controls Sinai Peninsula only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size and juxtaposition to Israel establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees

Neighbouring Countries

Israel Libya Sudan


The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C. who in turn were replaced by the Greeks Romans and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 Egypt became an important world transportation hub but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882 but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922 Egypt acquired full sovereignty with the overthrow of the British-backed monarchy in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world) limited arable land and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's growing population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
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Life Expectancy 72.12 years 108th
Median Age 24.8 years 122nd
Birth Rate 21.7 births/1,000 population 81st
Death Rate 5.08 births/1,000 population 173rd
Sex Ratio 0.74 male(s)/female 130th
Literacy 71.4% 157th

80.5 million


Roadways 92370 km 51st
Railways 5063 km 34th
Airports 85 67th
Waterways 3500 km 28th
Heliports 3 40th
Airports paved 2 50th


Currency Pound (EGP)
GDP $442.6 billion 26th
GDP per capita (PPP) $5400 122nd